Hormonal Contraception Estradiol Human Sex Hormone Estriol CAS
CAS No.: 50-27-1
Molecular Weight: 288.39
Density: 1.255 g/cm3
Melting Point: 280-282 ° C(lit. )
Boiling Point: 469 ° C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point: 220.8 ° C
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Min. order quantity: 10g
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Estradiol, or more precisely, 17β-estradiol, is a human sex hormone
and steroid, and the primary female sex hormone. It is named for
and is important in the regulation of the estrous and menstrual
female reproductive cycles. Estradiol is essential for the
development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues but it
also has important effects in many other tissues including bone.
While estrogen levels in men are lower compared to women, estrogens
have essential functions in men as well. Estradiol is found in most
vertebrates as well as many crustaceans, insects, fish, and other
Estradiol or oestradiol (American or British English usages),
derives from estra-, Gk. οστρο? (oistros, literally meaning "verve
or inspiration") and -diol, a chemical name and suffix indicating
that this form of steroid and sex hormone is a type of alcohol
bearing two hydroxyl groups.
Estradiol is produced especially within the follicles of female
ovaries, but also in other endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) and
non-endocrine tissues (e.g., including fat, liver, adrenal, breast,
and neural tissues). Estradiol is biosynthesized from progesterone
(arrived at in two steps from cholesterol, via intermediate
pregnenolone). One principle pathway then converts progesterone to
its 17-hydroxy-derivative, and then to androstenedione via
sequential cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidations.Action of aromatase
on this dione generates estrone, and action of a dehydrogenase on
this gives the title compound, 17β-estradiol.
A chemical derivative of estradiol, ethinyl estradiol with maximum
dosage 200 μg, is a major component of hormonal contraceptive
devices. Combined forms of hormonal contraception contain ethinyl
estradiol and a progestin, which both contribute to the inhibition
of GnRH, LH, and FSH, which accounts for the ability of these birth
control methods to prevent ovulation and thus prevent pregnancy.
Other types of hormonal birth control contain only progestins and
no ethinyl estradiol.
Hormone replacement therapy:
If severe side effects of low levels of estradiol in a woman's
blood are experienced (commonly at the beginning of menopause or
after oophorectomy), hormone replacement therapy may be prescribed.
Such therapy is usually combined with a progestin to reduce the
risk of endometrial cancer.
Estrogen therapy may be used in treatment of infertility in women
when there is a need to develop sperm-friendly cervical mucus or an
appropriate uterine lining. This is often prescribed in combination
Estrogen therapy can also be used to treat advanced prostate
cancer, as well as to relieve symptoms of breast cancer.
Not all products are available worldwide. Estradiol is also part of
conjugated estrogen preparations, such as Premarin, though it is
not the major ingredient. (Premarin consists of a large number of
estrogen derivatives. As the name indicates, it comes from pregnant
Hormone replacement therapy in transgender women:
Main article: Hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female)
Estrogen therapy is also used as part of the hormone replacement
therapy for trans women. Either oral or transdermal estradiol is
used in higher concentrations during initial treatment and
transition; estradiol is continued in lower doses to maintain
female-level hormones following gender reassignment surgery.
Inducing a state of hypoestrogenism may be beneficial in certain
situations where estrogens are contributing to unwanted effects,
e.g., certain forms of breast cancer, gynecomastia, premature
closure of epiphyses, and inhibiting feminization in female-to-male
transsexual hormone treatment. Estrogen levels can be reduced by
inhibiting production using gonadotropin-releasing factor agonists
(GnRH agonists) or blocking the aromatase enzyme using an aromatase
inhibitor, such as anastrozole, or with an estrogen receptor
antagonist, such as tamoxifen.
Several forms of estrogen occur naturally in a woman's body. The
ovary produces a form named estradiol, which is converted into
another important estrogen called estrone. Estriol is yet another
form of estrogen metabolized from estradiol, weaker than the other
two, but still active.
The estrogen tablets prescribed for menopausal symptoms usually
contain estradiol, estrone, or a combination of the two. Some
alternative medicine physicians have popularized the use of estriol
as an alternative, and there is no doubt that estriol is also
effective for symptoms of menopause. However, despite claims that
it is safer than other forms of estrogen, the balance of evidence
suggests that, in fact, estriol presents precisely the same risks.
Estriol is manufactured in the body from estrone, estradiol, and
androstenedione . When taken as a drug, it is manufactured
synthetically, or extracted from animal products.
The usual dose of estriol is 2 to 8 mg taken once daily. Estriol is
also commonly sold in combination with other forms of estrogen.
Like more common forms of estrogen, estriol is used for the
treatment of menopausal symptoms . Double-blind, placebo-controlled
studies and other controlled trials have found oral or vaginal
estriol effective for symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes,
night sweats, insomnia, vaginal dryness, and recurrent urinary
tract infections. Estriol may also help prevent.
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